Rationale and Design Section
A cross-sectional study is a study with individual-level variables that measures exposure and disease at one point in time. In other words, cross-sectional studies take a snapshot of a population. These types of studies are often used for public health planning.
Advantages & Disadvantages of cross-sectional studies
- Highly generalizable when based on a sample of the general population
- Low cost and short time period needed to conduct
- Cannot infer temporal sequence between exposure and disease
- Identify a high proportion of prevalent cases of long duration
- Can suffer from the “healthy worker effect” - where those who remain employed tend to be healthier than those who leave employment.
Examples in Research Section
This includes the National Center for Health Statistics study on Products - Data Briefs - Number 443 - August 2022 (cdc.gov)
A key finding = The percentages of both men and women who met the guidelines for both aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities decreased with age.
A Key finding = Nearly 80% (n = 176) of mothers with metastatic cancer reported they had discussed their prognosis with at least one of their children; 79% identified at least one barrier to these discussions.
A key finding =
|Opinion||Training Experience a
(n = 67)
|No Training Experience b
(n = 41)
|Smoking is harmful to health|
|Healthcare professionals have a social responsibility to warn smokers of the harmful effects of smoking.|
a Nurses with training experience in interventions to stop smoking.
b Nurses without training experience in interventions to stop smoking.
* Fischers exact test.