Lesson 8 - Bias, Confounding, Random Error, & Effect modification

Lesson 8 Objectives:

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to:

  • Identify different types of bias
  • Describe 2 main sources of random error
  • List the pros and cons of using p-values and confidence intervals for hypothesis testing
  • Describe methods for assessing the presence of confounding and effect modification
  • Distinguish between confounding and effect modification
  • Describe methods for controlling for confounding
  • Describe methods for presenting results when effect modification is present