5.2 - Comparison Operators

In the previous example, we used the less-than sign to make the comparison. We can use any of the standard comparison operators to make our comparisons as long as we follow the syntax that SAS expects, which is:


SAS syntax

Alternative SAS syntax

less than



greater than



less than or equal to



greater than or equal to



equal to



not equal to



equal to one of a list



It doesn't really matter which of the two syntax choices you use. It's just a matter of preference. To convince yourself that you understand how to use the alternative SAS syntax though, replace the less-than sign (<) in the Example 5.1 program with the letters "LT" (or "lt"). Then, re-run  the SAS program and review the output from the PRINT procedure to see that the program indeed performs as expected.

Example 5.2 Section

The following SAS program uses the IN operator to identify those students who scored a 98, 99, or 100 on their project score. That is, students whose p1 value equals either 98, 99, or 100 are assigned the value 'Excellent' for the project variable:

DATA grades;
	input name $ 1-15 e1 e2 e3 e4 p1 f1;
	if p1 in (98, 99, 100) then project = 'Excellent';
Alexander Smith  78 82 86 69  97 80
John Simon       88 72 86  . 100 85
Patricia Jones   98 92 92 99  99 93
Jack Benedict    54 63 71 49  82 69
Rene Porter     100 62 88 74  98 92

PROC PRINT data = grades;
	var name p1 project;

Launch and run the SAS program and review the output from the PRINT procedure to convince yourself that the program performs as described.

NOTE! After being introduced to the comparison operators, students are often tempted to use the syntax EQ in an assignment statement. If you try it, you'll soon learn that SAS will hiccup at you. Assignment statements must always use the equal sign (=).